They are also known as "garlic spears", "stems", or "tops". The plant is native to central Asia but grows wild in Italy and southern France and is a classic ingredient in many national cuisines. One example of a relative according to class 23). [51] Latin American seasonings, particularly, use garlic in sofritos and mofongos.[52]. For centuries it was used as a traditional remedy for most health-related disorders. Blending garlic, almond, oil, and soaked bread produces ajoblanco. Family: Amaryllidaceae J.St.-Hil. In Korea, heads of garlic are heated over the course of several weeks; the resulting product, called black garlic, is sweet and syrupy, and is exported to the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. The plant is used in traditional and folk medicine in many places, and there is some evidence that it may help prevent heart disease. This chemical opens thermo-transient receptor potential channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. Garlic, along with fish sauce, chopped fresh chilis, lime juice, sugar, and water, is a basic essential item in dipping fish sauce, a highly used dipping sauce condiment used in Indochina. Alliums might be toxic to cats or dogs. [6] Garlic-sensitive people show positive tests to diallyl disulfide, allylpropyldisulfide, allylmercaptan, and allicin, all of which are present in garlic. The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Genus Allium L. Click on names to expand them, and on P for PLANTS profiles. Introduction 1.1. Garlic is also a key component in some hummus varieties, an Arabic dip composed of chickpeas, tahini, garlic, lemon juice, and salt. (Allium sativum) also known as Wild Garlic or Field Garlic is a vegetable and most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium L. A perennial plant, … Garlic is usually grown as an annual crop and is propagated by planting cloves or top bulbils, though seeds can be also be used. [25], In 2018, world production of garlic was 28.5 million tonnes, with China alone accounting for 78% of the total.[8]. It is native to Central Asia and northeastern Iran and has long been a common seasoning worldwide, with a history of several thousand years of human consumption and use. 1074. Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. The scapes can be eaten raw or cooked. And it’s been shown to be effective in colon cancer treatment. In some cuisines, the young bulbs are pickled for three to six weeks in a mixture of sugar, salt, and spices. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Foliage consists of aromatic, linear, flattened, grass-like green leaves. [49] The root cluster attached to the basal plate of the bulb is the only part not typically considered palatable in any form. Being rich in antioxidants this herbal product helps to enhance the longevity of life. Garlic, Allium sativum; (Liliaceae) MAN'S BEST FRIEND IN A TOXIC WORLD In this issue of the newsletter, we will summarize the history of the use of garlic, examine garlic's many virtues, review some obscure and valuable literature on the subject, and make our recommendations concerning this wonderful herb. To ward off vampires, garlic could be worn, hung in windows, or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes. In North America, Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense( known as "meadow garlic", "wild garlic", or "wild onion") are common weeds in fields. Tzatziki, yogurt mixed with garlic and salt, is a common sauce in Eastern Mediterranean cuisines. Emulsifying garlic with olive oil produces aioli. The distinctive aroma is mainly due to organosulfur compounds including allicin present in fresh garlic cloves and ajoene which forms when they are crushed or chopped. The bulbs have a powerful onionlike aroma and pungent taste and are not usually eaten raw. Garlic (Allium sativum) is used as a tincture, oil and in food for upper respiratory infections and for the treatment of hypertension.To explore the characteristics, medicinal uses and prescribing considerations of this herb in more detail, check out the references indicated. Garlic, (Allium sativum), perennial plant of the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae), grown for its flavourful bulbs. garlic - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), garlic - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium. 32), by the African peasantry. [12], Identification of the wild progenitor of common garlic is difficult due to the sterility of its many cultivars, which limits the ability to cross test with wild relatives. Allium sativum, commonly called garlic, is a bulbous perennial of the onion family. [74], A 2014 Cochrane review[75] found insufficient evidence to determine the effects of garlic in preventing or treating the common cold. Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic. Oils can be flavored with garlic cloves. Allium sativum, commonly called garlic, is a bulbous perennial of the onion family. isolated from garlic in two regions in Argentina", J.G. The generic name Allium is the Latin word for garlic, and the type species for the genus is Allium sativum which means "cultivated garlic". In some varieties, a central scape topped by an umbel of pinkish-white flowers rises from each clump of leaves to 18” tall in summer. In East and Southeast Asia, chili oil with garlic is a popular dipping sauce, especially for meat and seafood. [80], The side effects of long-term garlic supplementation are largely unknown. They have a characteristic pungent, spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. In the typical serving size of 1–3 cloves (3–9 grams), garlic provides no significant nutritional value, with the content of all essential nutrients below 10% of the Daily Value (DV) (table). [2][13] Well-preserved garlic was found in the tomb of Tutankhamun (c. 1325 BC). In some varieties, a central scape topped by an umbel of pinkish-white flowers rises from each clump of leaves to 18” tall in summer. The bulb is odoriferous and contains outer layers of thin sheathing leaves surrounding an inner sheath that encloses the clove. Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. Full head of garlic beside another with removed cloves (one clove has been peeled). Avicenna, in The Canon of Medicine (1025), recommends garlic for the treatment of a wide variety of ailments including arthritis, snake and insect bites, parasites, chronic cough, and as antibiotic for infectious diseases. One of these medicinal plant Garlic (Allium sativum) members of Amaryllidaceae family reduces various risk factors associated with several diseases. It is native to the Mediterranean area. Noxious Weed Information; This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names: Rashun (Bengali); Garlic (English). Alliaceae) is one of the most researched and best-selling herbal products on the market. Penicillium hirsutum[59] and Penicillium allii[60] are two of the predominant species identified in blue mold. It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands called plaits or grappes. [6][82] Garlic may interact with warfarin,[6] saquinavir, antihypertensives, calcium channel blockers, the quinolone family of antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, and hypoglycemic drugs, as well as other medications. [84][85], In the foundation myth of the ancient Korean kingdom of Gojoseon, eating nothing but 20 cloves of garlic and a bundle of Korean mugwort for 100 days let a bear be transformed into a woman.[86]. [79] On the basis of numerous reports of such burns, including burns to children, topical use of raw garlic, as well as insertion of raw garlic into body cavities, is discouraged. Allium species are found in most regions of the world except the tropics and New Zealand and Australia. [2] Aged garlic lacks allicin, but may have some activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. [29] The herb is, therefore, included in many garlic recipes, such as pistou, persillade, and the garlic butter spread used in garlic bread. Easy to grow and undemanding, these very ornamental bulbs distinguish themselves by their great diversity in color, inflorescence, flowering height and bloom times. Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In colder climates, cloves are best planted about six weeks before the soil freezes. [54] Acidification with a mild solution of vinegar minimizes bacterial growth. Test your knowledge with this quiz. [57] As sporulation and germination are delayed at low temperature, and at -4 deg. Stored garlic can be affected by Penicillium decay known as ”blue mold” (or ”green mold” in some locales), especially in high humidity. pharmacognosy. Large cloves, along with proper spacing in the planting bed, will also increase bulb size. [6] Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort, sweating, dizziness, allergic reactions, bleeding, and menstrual irregularities. [20] While sexual propagation of garlic is possible, nearly all of the garlic in cultivation is propagated asexually, by planting individual cloves in the ground. Fresh or crushed garlic yields the sulfur-containing compounds allicin, ajoene, diallyl polysulfides, vinyldithiins, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, saponins, flavonoids, and Maillard reaction products, which are not sulfur-containing compounds. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Corrections? [14], Garlic is often kept in oil to produce flavored oil; however, the practice requires measures to be taken to prevent the garlic from spoiling which may include rancidity and growth of Clostridium botulinum. [8][9], The word garlic derives from Old English, garlēac, meaning gar (spear) and leek, as a 'spear-shaped leek'. [73], A 2013 meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies found limited evidence for an association between higher garlic consumption and reduced risk of prostate cancer, but the studies were suspected as having publication bias. Green garlic is often chopped and stir-fried or cooked in soup or hot pot in Southeast Asian (i.e. Garlic plants can be grown closely together, leaving enough space for the bulbs to mature, and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. [22][23], Garlic plants are usually hardy and not affected by many pests or diseases. [3] An environmentally benign garlic-derived polysulfide product is approved for use in the European Union (under Annex 1 of 91/414) and the UK as a nematicide and insecticide, including for use for control of cabbage root fly and red mite in poultry. Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. [28] Allicin, along with its decomposition products diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide, are major contributors to the characteristic odor of garlic, with other allicin-derived compounds, such as vinyldithiins and ajoene. In Europe, many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic, perhaps owing to its reputation in folk medicine. Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates and produces relatively large cloves, whereas softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator and produces small, tightly-packed cloves. This is because garlic's strong-smelling sulfur compounds are metabolized, forming allyl methyl sulfide. [31][32] These rings can be linked together into polypyrrole molecules. Shallots, leeks, and chives are also members of the allium family. Genus: Allium L. Allium sativum L.; Garlic is a strongly aromatic bulb crop that has been cultivated for thousands of years. The composition of raw garlic is 59% water, 33% carbohydrates, 6% protein, 2% dietary fiber, and less than 1% fat.[89]. They are often used in stir frying or braised like asparagus. ©Donovan Govan-2005/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0 Immature scapes are tender and edible. [7], Some breastfeeding mothers have found, after consuming garlic, that their babies can be slow to feed, and have noted a garlic odor coming from them. Garlic (Allium sativum) originated in China, but thanks to its numerous benefits it has been cultivated throughout the world for more than 5,000 years. In eastern Europe, the shoots are pickled and eaten as an appetizer. Several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes, including naturopathic uses and acne treatment, indicate care must be taken for these uses, usually testing a small area of skin using a low concentration of garlic. The plant is native to central Asia but grows wild in Italy and southern France and is a classic ingredient in many national cuisines. While research has shown it is good for your blood, potentially reducing fat and sugar levels, there is no scientific evidence to prove it can fend off vampires. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and Chinese onion. However, the plant also has poisonous characteristics as noted in the "Poisonous to Humans" section of this record. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man). The goal is to have the bulbs produce only roots and no shoots above the ground. Garlic contains about 0.1 percent essential oil, the principal components of which are diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, and allyl propyl disulfide. Allium, (genus Allium), large genus of onion- or garlic-scented bulbous herbs of the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae). Garlic powder has a different taste from fresh garlic. from Allium sativumdown, it can be seen all the different groups that Allium sativumis related to. Lightly smoked garlic is used in British and other European cuisine. Scapes generally have a milder taste than the cloves. The garlic plant's bulb is the most commonly used part of the plant. Since digestion takes several hours, and release of AMS several hours more, the effect of eating garlic may be present for a long time.[2]. Numerous cuneiform records show that garlic has been cultivated in Mesopotamia for at least 4,000 years. Often the bulb contains 10 to 20 cloves that are asymmetric in shape, except for those closest to the center. [63] A 2016 meta-analysis indicated there was no effect of garlic consumption on blood levels of lipoprotein(a), a biomarker of atherosclerosis. Also, it is widely used as a food ingredient--spice and aphrodisiac. [14] The well-known phenomenon of "garlic breath" is allegedly alleviated by eating fresh parsley. The green, dry "folds" in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent. It is particularly prized for stuffing poultry and game, and in soups and stews. The spherical flower cluster is initially enclosed in a pair of papery tapered bracts; the bracts split open when the green-white or pinkish flowers bloom. Because of the AMS in the bloodstream, it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent, but no clinically reported evidence suggests it is actually effective. [89] When expressed per 100 grams, garlic contains several nutrients in rich amounts (20% or more of the DV), including vitamins B6 and C, and the dietary minerals manganese and phosphorus. Garlic does well in loose, dry, well-drained soils in sunny locations, and is hardy throughout USDA climate zones 4–9. If used as a substitute for fresh garlic, 1/8 teaspoon of garlic powder is approximate to one clove of garlic. [13][14][15] However, because Allium longicuspis is also mostly sterile, it is doubtful that it is the ancestor of Allium sativum. Description: Garlic is cultivated all over the country as a spice plant. So anti-ageing properties of this herb contribute to inhibit … It has since been domesticated and grown around the world for its properties as a food and also as a source of medicine. In the 17th century, Thomas Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and William Cullen's Materia Medica of 1789 found some dropsies cured by it alone.[41]. Per 100 gram serving, garlic is also a moderate source (10–19% DV) of certain B vitamins, including thiamin and pantothenic acid, as well as the dietary minerals calcium, iron, and zinc (table). It is renowned throughout the world for its distinctive flavour as well as its health-giving properties. This plant has no children Legal Status. Alliums are plants of exquisite beauty that deserve a place in perennial gardens. The leaves are cut, cleaned, and then stir-fried with eggs, meat, or vegetables. The Science of Garlic and How to Make the Best Garlic Bread | Garlic Bread | What's Eating Dan? [14], There are different varieties or subspecies of garlic, most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic. It is a cultivated food highly regarded throughout the world. [68] Further meta-analyses found similar results on the incidence of stomach cancer by consuming allium vegetables including garlic. [81] Garlic (Allium sativum) is one of the best known herbs around the world. Inedible or rarely eaten parts of the garlic plant include the "skin" covering each clove and root cluster. Valdez et. [77], Garlic is known to cause bad breath (halitosis) and body odor, described as a pungent "garlicky" smell to sweat. Garlic cloves are used for consumption (raw or cooked) or for medicinal purposes. C are inhibited entirely,[58] in refrigerated cloves one may only see the white mycellium during early stages. Genetically and morphologically, garlic is most similar to the wild species Allium longicuspis, which grows in central and southwestern Asia. [6] If garlic is planted at the proper time and depth, it can be grown as far north as Alaska. Latin Name: Allium sativum Family: Alliaceae. RESEARCH [citation needed], A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic. [6][7] China produces some 80% of the world's supply of garlic. The two-pyrrole molecule looks red, the three-pyrrole molecule looks blue, and the four-pyrrole molecule looks green (like chlorophyll, a tetrapyrrole). Additionally, the immature flower stalks (scapes) of the hardneck and elephant types are sometimes marketed for uses similar to asparagus in stir-fries.[14]. There are at least 120 cultivars originating from Central Asia, making it the main center of garlic biodiversity.[19]. In celebration of Nowruz (Persian calendar New Year), garlic is one of the essential items in a Haft-sin ("seven things beginning with 'S'") table, a traditional New Year's display: the name for garlic in Persian is سیر (seer), which begins with "س" (sin, pronounced "seen") the Perso-Arabic letter corresponding to "S". [45] When eaten in quantity, garlic may be strongly evident in the diner's sweat and garlic breath the following day. [7][76], The sticky juice within the bulb cloves is used as an adhesive in mending glass and porcelain. [7] Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons, werewolves, and vampires. It is often paired with onion, tomato, or ginger. With the exception of the single clove types, garlic bulbs are normally divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. Read more about the prescription drug GARLIC (Allium sativum L.) - ORAL. [20] The latitude where the garlic is grown affects the choice of type, as garlic can be day-length sensitive. "Bulletin #1206, Blue Mold of Garlic," U. of Maine Cooperative Extension. Garlic is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions, including eastern Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, northern Africa, southern Europe, and parts of Latin America. WhatsApp. When garlic cloves are distilled with water, garlic oil is isolated and is found to contain a mixture of compounds including diallyl disulfide, trisulfide, and polysulfides—e.g., (CH, When a garlic clove is cut or crushed, S-2-propenylcysteine S-oxide (alliin) is transformed by the enzyme alliinase into the intermediate compound 2-propenesulfenic acid, CH, …bulb, such as onion and garlic; a petiole or leafstalk, such as celery and rhubarb; a leaf, such as cabbage, lettuce, parsley, spinach, and chive; an immature flower, such as cauliflower, broccoli, and…. These capsules are prepared from the pure extracts of herb Rasona. Assessment report on Allium sativum L., bulbus EMA/HMPC/7686/2013 Page 4/75 1. [54] Refrigeration does not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil, requiring use within one month to avoid bacterial spoilage. As of 2015, clinical research to determine the effects of consuming garlic on hypertension found that consuming garlic produces only a small reduction in blood pressure (4 mmHg),[61][62][63] and there is no clear long-term effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Garlic plants prefer to grow in a soil with a high organic material content, but are capable of growing in a wide range of soil conditions and pH levels. [42] Among the members of the onion family, garlic has by far the highest concentrations of initial reaction products, making garlic much more potent than onion, shallot, or leeks. Depending on the variety, the long leaves typically arise from a short hard stem above the bulb or emerge from a softer pseudostem made up of overlapping leaf sheaths. [37] Translations of the c. 1300 Assize of Weights and Measures, an English statute generally dated to the 13th century, indicate a passage as dealing with standardized units of garlic production, sale, and taxation — the hundred of 15 ropes of 15 heads each[38] – but the Latin version of the text may refer to herring rather than garlic. Garlic will keep longer if the tops remain attached. Plants in the genus Allium usually grow from bulbs. Since antiquity, garlic is one of the most important medicinal and culinary plants and finds mention in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine. Pinterest. [3] It is native to Central Asia and northeastern Iran and has long been a common seasoning worldwide, with a history of several thousand years of human consumption and use. It has also been used as a traditional medicine. [21] In Levantine countries such as Jordan, Palestine, and Lebanon, garlic is traditionally crushed together with olive oil, and occasionally salt, to create a Middle Eastern garlic sauce called Toum (تُوم; meaning "garlic" in Arabic). Some species have been cultivated over the centuries for their edible properties, giving us onions (Allium cepa), chives (Allium schoenoprasum), and garlic (Allium sativum).Others, such as Allium gigantea, have been prized and grown specifically for their beautiful blooms.Either way, the flower heads are umbels, made up of a … [56] Infection may first appear as soft or water-soaked spots, followed by white patches (of mycelium) which turn blue or green with sporulation. Based on several hadith. [ 87 ] [ 46 ], there are varieties. Is sometimes pulled, rather like a scallion, and vampires produces edible bulbs of. 48 ] it was used as food seasoning research Allium sativum, commonly known ``! 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